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Technical data for Phosphorus

Click any property name to see plots of that property for all the elements.

Overview
NamePhosphorus
SymbolP
Atomic Number15
Atomic Weight30.973761
Density1.823 g/cm3
Melting Point44.2 °C[note]
Boiling Point280.5 °C[note]

Thermal properties
PhaseSolid
Melting Point44.2 °C[note]
Boiling Point280.5 °C[note]
Absolute Melting Point317.3 K[note]
Absolute Boiling Point553.6 K[note]
Critical PressureN/A
Critical TemperatureN/A
Heat of Fusion0.64 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization12.4 kJ/mol
Heat of Combustion{"N/A", "N/A", "N/A", "N/A"} J/(kg K)
Specific Heat769.7 J/(kg K)[note]
Adiabatic IndexN/A
Neel PointN/A
Thermal Conductivity0.236 W/(m K)
Thermal ExpansionN/A

Bulk physical properties
Density1.823 g/cm3
Density (Liquid)N/A
Molar Volume0.000016991
Brinell HardnessN/A
Mohs HardnessN/A
Vickers HardnessN/A
Bulk Modulus11 GPa
Shear ModulusN/A
Young ModulusN/A
Poisson RatioN/A
Refractive Index1.001212
Speed of SoundN/A
Thermal Conductivity0.236 W/(m K)
Thermal ExpansionN/A

Reactivity
Valence5
Electronegativity2.19
ElectronAffinity72 kJ/mol
Ionization Energies
1011.8, 1907, 2914.1, 4963.6, 6273.9, 21267, 25431, 29872, 35905, 40950 kJ/mol

Health and Safety
Autoignition PointN/A
FlashpointN/A[note]
Heat of Combustion{"N/A", "N/A", "N/A", "N/A"} J/(kg K)
DOT Hazard Class{N/A, 4.1, 4.2, N/A}
DOT Numbers"N/A", {1338}, {1381, 2447}, "N/A"
EU Number{N/A, N/A, N/A, N/A}
NFPA Fire Rating{N/A, 0, 4, N/A}
NFPA Hazards
N/ A, N/ A, N/ A, N/ A
NFPA Health Rating{N/A, 0, 4, N/A}
NFPA Reactivity Rating{N/A, 2, 2, N/A}
RTECS Number{N/A, RTECSTH3495000, RTECSTH3500000, N/A}
NFPA LabelNFPA Label[note]

Classifications
Alternate NamesNone
Names of Allotropes
WhitePhosphorus, RedPhosphorus, BlackPhosphorus
Blockp
Group15
Period3
Electron Configuration[Ne]3s23p3
ColorColorless
Discovery
1669 in Germany
Gas phaseN/A
CAS NumberCAS7723-14-0
CID Number{CID5462309, CID5462309, CID123286, CID5460700}
Gmelin Number{N/A, N/A, N/A, N/A}
NSC Number{N/A, N/A, N/A, N/A}
RTECS Number{N/A, RTECSTH3495000, RTECSTH3500000, N/A}

Electrical properties
Electrical TypeConductor
Electrical Conductivity1×107 S/m
Resistivity1×10-7 m Ω
Superconducting PointN/A

Magnetic properties
Magnetic TypeDiamagnetic
Curie PointN/A
Mass Magnetic Susceptibility-1.13×10-8
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility-3.5×10-10
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility-0.0000206

Abundances
% in Universe0.0007%
% in Sun0.0007%
% in Meteorites0.11%
% in Earth's Crust0.099%
% in Oceans7×10-6%
% in Humans1.1%

Atomic dimensions and structure
Atomic Radius98 pm
Covalent Radius106 pm
Van der Waals Radius180 pm
Crystal StructureSimple Triclinic
Lattice Angles
1.25384, 1.57725, 1.24896
Lattice Constants
1145, 550.3, 1126.1 pm
Space Group NameP-1
Space Group Number2

Nuclear Properties
Half-LifeStable
LifetimeStable
Decay ModeN/A
Quantum Numbers4S3/2
Neutron Cross Section0.18
Neutron Mass Absorption0.0002
Known Isotopes
24P, 25P, 26P, 27P, 28P, 29P, 30P, 31P, 32P, 33P, 34P, 35P, 36P, 37P, 38P, 39P, 40P, 41P, 42P, 43P, 44P, 45P, 46P
Stable Isotopes
31P
Isotopic Abundances
31P100%


Notes on the properties of Phosphorus:

Absolute Boiling Point: Value given for yellow phosphorus form.

Absolute Melting Point: Value given for yellow phosphorus form.

Boiling Point: Value given for yellow phosphorus form.

Melting Point: Value given for yellow phosphorus form.

Specific Heat: Value given for solid phase of P . 4

Flash Point: {Missing[NotAvailable], Missing[NotAvailable], Missing[NotAvailable], Missing[NotAvailable]}

N FP ALabel: {Missing[NotAvailable], Missing[NotAvailable], Missing[NotAvailable], Missing[NotAvailable]}

Up to date, curated data provided by
Mathematica's ElementData function from Wolfram Research, Inc.

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