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Technical data for Gallium

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Overview
NameGallium
SymbolGa
Atomic Number31
Atomic Weight69.723
Density5.904 g/cm3
Melting Point29.76 °C
Boiling Point2204 °C

Thermal properties
PhaseSolid
Melting Point29.76 °C
Boiling Point2204 °C
Absolute Melting Point302.91 K
Absolute Boiling Point2477 K
Critical PressureN/A
Critical TemperatureN/A
Heat of Fusion5.59 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization256 kJ/mol
Heat of CombustionN/A
Specific Heat371 J/(kg K)[note]
Adiabatic IndexN/A
Neel PointN/A
Thermal Conductivity29 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion0.00012 K-1

Bulk physical properties
Density5.904 g/cm3
Density (Liquid)6.095 g/cm3
Molar Volume0.000011809
Brinell Hardness60 MPa
Mohs Hardness1.5 MPa
Vickers HardnessN/A
Bulk ModulusN/A
Shear ModulusN/A
Young ModulusN/A
Poisson RatioN/A
Refractive IndexN/A
Speed of Sound2740 m/s
Thermal Conductivity29 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion0.00012 K-1

Reactivity
Valence3
Electronegativity1.81
ElectronAffinity28.9 kJ/mol
Ionization Energies
578.8, 1979.3, 2963, 6180 kJ/mol

Health and Safety
Autoignition PointN/A
FlashpointN/A
Heat of CombustionN/A
DOT Hazard Class8
DOT Numbers2803
EU NumberN/A
NFPA Fire Rating0
NFPA HazardsN/A
NFPA Health Rating1
NFPA Reactivity Rating0
RTECS NumberRTECSLW8600000
NFPA LabelNFPA Label

Classifications
Alternate NamesNone
Names of AllotropesNone
Blockp
Group13
Period4
Electron Configuration[Ar]3d104s24p1
ColorSilver
Discovery
1875 in France
Gas phaseN/A
CAS NumberCAS7440-55-3
CID NumberCID5360835
Gmelin NumberN/A
NSC NumberN/A
RTECS NumberRTECSLW8600000

Electrical properties
Electrical TypeConductor
Electrical Conductivity7.1×106 S/m
Resistivity1.4×10-7 m Ω
Superconducting Point1.083

Magnetic properties
Magnetic TypeDiamagnetic
Curie PointN/A
Mass Magnetic Susceptibility-3×10-9
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility-2.09×10-10
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility-0.0000177

Abundances
% in Universe1×10-6%
% in Sun4×10-6%
% in Meteorites0.00076%
% in Earth's Crust0.0019%
% in Oceans3×10-9%
% in HumansN/A

Atomic dimensions and structure
Atomic Radius136 pm
Covalent Radius126 pm
Van der Waals Radius187 pm
Crystal StructureBase Centered Orthorhombic
Lattice Angles
π/2, π/2, π/2
Lattice Constants
451.97, 766.33, 452.6 pm
Space Group NameCmca
Space Group Number64

Nuclear Properties
Half-LifeStable
LifetimeStable
Decay ModeN/A
Quantum Numbers2P1/2
Neutron Cross Section2.9
Neutron Mass Absorption0.0015
Known Isotopes
56Ga, 57Ga, 58Ga, 59Ga, 60Ga, 61Ga, 62Ga, 63Ga, 64Ga, 65Ga, 66Ga, 67Ga, 68Ga, 69Ga, 70Ga, 71Ga, 72Ga, 73Ga, 74Ga, 75Ga, 76Ga, 77Ga, 78Ga, 79Ga, 80Ga, 81Ga, 82Ga, 83Ga, 84Ga, 85Ga, 86Ga
Stable Isotopes
69Ga, 71Ga
Isotopic Abundances
69Ga60.108%
71Ga39.892%


Notes on the properties of Gallium:

Specific Heat: Value given for solid phase.

Up to date, curated data provided by
Mathematica's ElementData function from Wolfram Research, Inc.

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