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Technical data for Germanium

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Overview
NameGermanium
SymbolGe
Atomic Number32
Atomic Weight72.64
Density5.323 g/cm3
Melting Point938.3 °C
Boiling Point2820 °C

Thermal properties
PhaseSolid
Melting Point938.3 °C
Boiling Point2820 °C
Absolute Melting Point1211.4 K
Absolute Boiling Point3093 K
Critical PressureN/A
Critical TemperatureN/A
Heat of Fusion31.8 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization334 kJ/mol
Heat of Combustion-536 J/(kg K)
Specific Heat321.4 J/(kg K)[note]
Adiabatic IndexN/A
Neel PointN/A
Thermal Conductivity60 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion6×10-6 K-1

Bulk physical properties
Density5.323 g/cm3
Density (Liquid)5.6 g/cm3
Molar Volume0.000013646
Brinell HardnessN/A
Mohs Hardness6 MPa
Vickers HardnessN/A
Bulk ModulusN/A
Shear ModulusN/A
Young ModulusN/A
Poisson RatioN/A
Refractive IndexN/A
Speed of Sound5.4×103 m/s
Thermal Conductivity60 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion6×10-6 K-1

Reactivity
Valence4
Electronegativity2.01
ElectronAffinity119 kJ/mol
Ionization Energies
762, 1537.5, 3302.1, 4411, 9020 kJ/mol

Health and Safety
Autoignition PointN/A
FlashpointN/A
Heat of Combustion-536 J/(kg K)
DOT Hazard Class4.1
DOT Numbers3089
EU NumberN/A
NFPA Fire Rating0
NFPA HazardsN/A
NFPA Health Rating1
NFPA Reactivity Rating0
RTECS NumberRTECSLY5200000
NFPA LabelNFPA Label

Classifications
Alternate NamesNone
Names of AllotropesNone
Blockp
Group14
Period4
Electron Configuration[Ar]3d104s24p2
ColorGray
Discovery
1886 in Germany
Gas phaseN/A
CAS NumberCAS7440-56-4
CID NumberCID6326954
Gmelin NumberN/A
NSC NumberN/A
RTECS NumberRTECSLY5200000

Electrical properties
Electrical TypeSemiconductor
Electrical Conductivity2×103 S/m
Resistivity0.0005 m Ω
Superconducting PointN/A

Magnetic properties
Magnetic TypeDiamagnetic
Curie PointN/A
Mass Magnetic Susceptibility-1.5×10-9
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility-1.09×10-10
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility-7.98×10-6

Abundances
% in Universe0.00002%
% in Sun0.00002%
% in Meteorites0.0021%
% in Earth's Crust0.00014%
% in Oceans6×10-9%
% in HumansN/A

Atomic dimensions and structure
Atomic Radius125 pm
Covalent Radius122 pm
Van der Waals RadiusN/A
Crystal StructureFace Centered Cubic
Lattice Angles
π/2, π/2, π/2
Lattice Constants
565.75, 565.75, 565.75 pm
Space Group NameFm_ 3m
Space Group Number225

Nuclear Properties
Half-LifeStable
LifetimeStable
Decay ModeN/A
Quantum Numbers3P0
Neutron Cross Section2.2
Neutron Mass Absorption0.0011
Known Isotopes
58Ge, 59Ge, 60Ge, 61Ge, 62Ge, 63Ge, 64Ge, 65Ge, 66Ge, 67Ge, 68Ge, 69Ge, 70Ge, 71Ge, 72Ge, 73Ge, 74Ge, 75Ge, 76Ge, 77Ge, 78Ge, 79Ge, 80Ge, 81Ge, 82Ge, 83Ge, 84Ge, 85Ge, 86Ge, 87Ge, 88Ge, 89Ge
Stable Isotopes
70Ge, 72Ge, 73Ge, 74Ge
Isotopic Abundances
70Ge20.84%
72Ge27.54%
73Ge7.73%
74Ge36.28%
76Ge7.61%


Notes on the properties of Germanium:

Specific Heat: Value given for solid phase.

Up to date, curated data provided by
Mathematica's ElementData function from Wolfram Research, Inc.

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