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Technical data for Copper

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Overview
NameCopper
SymbolCu
Atomic Number29
Atomic Weight63.546
Density8.92 g/cm3
Melting Point1084.62 °C
Boiling Point2927 °C

Thermal properties
PhaseSolid
Melting Point1084.62 °C
Boiling Point2927 °C
Absolute Melting Point1357.77 K
Absolute Boiling Point3.2×103 K
Critical PressureN/A
Critical TemperatureN/A
Heat of Fusion13.1 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization300 kJ/mol
Heat of CombustionN/A
Specific Heat384.4 J/(kg K)[note]
Adiabatic IndexN/A
Neel PointN/A
Thermal Conductivity400 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion0.0000165 K-1

Bulk physical properties
Density8.92 g/cm3
Density (Liquid)8.02 g/cm3
Molar Volume7.124×10-6
Brinell Hardness874 MPa
Mohs Hardness3 MPa
Vickers Hardness369 MPa
Bulk Modulus140 GPa
Shear Modulus48 GPa
Young Modulus130 GPa
Poisson Ratio0.34
Refractive IndexN/A
Speed of Sound3570 m/s
Thermal Conductivity400 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion0.0000165 K-1

Reactivity
Valence2
Electronegativity1.9
ElectronAffinity118.4 kJ/mol
Ionization Energies
745.5, 1957.9, 3555, 5536, 7.7×103, 9.9×103, 1.34×104, 1.6×104, 1.92×104, 2.24×104, 2.56×104, 3.56×104, 3.87×104, 4.2×104, 4.67×104, 5.02×104, 5.37×104, 6.11×104, 64702, 1.637×105, 1.741×105 kJ/mol

Health and Safety
Autoignition PointN/A
FlashpointN/A
Heat of CombustionN/A
DOT Hazard Class4.1
DOT Numbers3089
EU NumberN/A
NFPA Fire Rating1
NFPA HazardsN/A
NFPA Health Rating1
NFPA Reactivity Rating0
RTECS NumberRTECSGL5325000
NFPA LabelNFPA Label

Classifications
Alternate NamesCuprum
Names of AllotropesNone
Blockd
Group11
Period4
Electron Configuration[Ar]3d104s1
ColorCopper
Discovery
8000 BC
Gas phaseN/A
CAS NumberCAS7440-50-8
CID NumberCID23978
Gmelin NumberN/A
NSC NumberN/A
RTECS NumberRTECSGL5325000

Electrical properties
Electrical TypeConductor
Electrical Conductivity5.9×107 S/m
Resistivity1.7×10-8 m Ω
Superconducting PointN/A

Magnetic properties
Magnetic TypeDiamagnetic
Curie PointN/A
Mass Magnetic Susceptibility-1.08×10-9
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility-6.86×10-11
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility-9.63×10-6

Abundances
% in Universe6×10-6%
% in Sun0.00007%
% in Meteorites0.011%
% in Earth's Crust0.0068%
% in Oceans3×10-7%
% in Humans0.0001%

Atomic dimensions and structure
Atomic Radius145 pm
Covalent Radius138 pm
Van der Waals Radius140 pm
Crystal StructureFace Centered Cubic
Lattice Angles
π/2, π/2, π/2
Lattice Constants
361.49, 361.49, 361.49 pm
Space Group NameFm_ 3m
Space Group Number225

Nuclear Properties
Half-LifeStable
LifetimeStable
Decay ModeN/A
Quantum Numbers2S1/2
Neutron Cross Section3.78
Neutron Mass Absorption0.0021
Known Isotopes
52Cu, 53Cu, 54Cu, 55Cu, 56Cu, 57Cu, 58Cu, 59Cu, 60Cu, 61Cu, 62Cu, 63Cu, 64Cu, 65Cu, 66Cu, 67Cu, 68Cu, 69Cu, 70Cu, 71Cu, 72Cu, 73Cu, 74Cu, 75Cu, 76Cu, 77Cu, 78Cu, 79Cu, 80Cu
Stable Isotopes
63Cu, 65Cu
Isotopic Abundances
63Cu69.17%
65Cu30.83%


Notes on the properties of Copper:

Specific Heat: Value given for solid phase.

Up to date, curated data provided by
Mathematica's ElementData function from Wolfram Research, Inc.

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