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Technical data for Scandium

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Overview
NameScandium
SymbolSc
Atomic Number21
Atomic Weight44.95591
Density2.985 g/cm3
Melting Point1541 °C
Boiling Point2830 °C

Thermal properties
PhaseSolid
Melting Point1541 °C
Boiling Point2830 °C
Absolute Melting Point1814 K
Absolute Boiling Point3103 K
Critical PressureN/A
Critical TemperatureN/A
Heat of Fusion16 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization318 kJ/mol
Heat of CombustionN/A
Specific Heat567 J/(kg K)[note]
Adiabatic IndexN/A
Neel PointN/A
Thermal Conductivity16 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion0.0000102 K-1

Bulk physical properties
Density2.985 g/cm3
Density (Liquid)2.8 g/cm3
Molar Volume0.000015061
Brinell Hardness750 MPa
Mohs HardnessN/A
Vickers HardnessN/A
Bulk Modulus57 GPa
Shear Modulus29 GPa
Young Modulus74 GPa
Poisson Ratio0.28
Refractive IndexN/A
Speed of SoundN/A
Thermal Conductivity16 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion0.0000102 K-1

Reactivity
Valence3
Electronegativity1.36
ElectronAffinity18.1 kJ/mol
Ionization Energies
633.1, 1235, 2388.6, 7090.6, 8843, 10679, 13310, 15250, 17370, 21726, 24102, 66320, 73010, 80160, 89490, 9.74×104, 1.056×105, 1.17×105, 124270, 547530, 582163 kJ/mol

Health and Safety
Autoignition PointN/A
FlashpointN/A
Heat of CombustionN/A
DOT Hazard Class4.1
DOT Numbers3089
EU NumberN/A
NFPA Fire RatingN/A
NFPA HazardsN/A
NFPA Health RatingN/A
NFPA Reactivity RatingN/A
RTECS NumberN/A
NFPA LabelN/A

Classifications
Alternate NamesNone
Names of AllotropesNone
Blockd
Group3
Period4
Electron Configuration[Ar]3d14s2
ColorSilver
Discovery
1879 in Sweden
Gas phaseN/A
CAS NumberCAS7440-20-2
CID NumberCID23952
Gmelin NumberN/A
NSC NumberN/A
RTECS NumberN/A

Electrical properties
Electrical TypeConductor
Electrical Conductivity1.8×106 S/m
Resistivity5.5×10-7 m Ω
Superconducting Point0.05

Magnetic properties
Magnetic TypeParamagnetic
Curie PointN/A
Mass Magnetic Susceptibility8.8×10-8
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility3.956×10-9
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility0.0002627

Abundances
% in Universe3×10-6%
% in Sun4×10-6%
% in Meteorites0.00064%
% in Earth's Crust0.0026%
% in Oceans1.5×10-10%
% in HumansN/A

Atomic dimensions and structure
Atomic Radius184 pm
Covalent Radius144 pm
Van der Waals RadiusN/A
Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal
Lattice Angles
π/2, π/2, 2 π/3
Lattice Constants
330.9, 330.9, 527.33 pm
Space Group NameP63/mmc
Space Group Number194

Nuclear Properties
Half-LifeStable
LifetimeStable
Decay ModeN/A
Quantum Numbers2D3/2
Neutron Cross Section27.2
Neutron Mass Absorption0.025
Known Isotopes
36Sc, 37Sc, 38Sc, 39Sc, 40Sc, 41Sc, 42Sc, 43Sc, 44Sc, 45Sc, 46Sc, 47Sc, 48Sc, 49Sc, 50Sc, 51Sc, 52Sc, 53Sc, 54Sc, 55Sc, 56Sc, 57Sc, 58Sc, 59Sc, 60Sc
Stable Isotopes
45Sc
Isotopic Abundances
45Sc100%


Notes on the properties of Scandium:

Specific Heat: Value given for solid phase.

Up to date, curated data provided by
Mathematica's ElementData function from Wolfram Research, Inc.

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