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Technical data for Gadolinium

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Overview
NameGadolinium
SymbolGd
Atomic Number64
Atomic Weight157.25
Density7.901 g/cm3
Melting Point1313 °C
Boiling Point3250 °C

Thermal properties
PhaseSolid
Melting Point1313 °C
Boiling Point3250 °C
Absolute Melting Point1586 K
Absolute Boiling Point3523 K
Critical PressureN/A
Critical TemperatureN/A
Heat of Fusion10 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization305 kJ/mol
Heat of CombustionN/A
Specific Heat240 J/(kg K)[note]
Adiabatic IndexN/A
Neel PointN/A
Thermal Conductivity11 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion9.4×10-6 K-1

Bulk physical properties
Density7.901 g/cm3
Density (Liquid)7.4 g/cm3
Molar Volume0.000019903
Brinell HardnessN/A
Mohs HardnessN/A
Vickers Hardness570 MPa
Bulk Modulus38 GPa
Shear Modulus22 GPa
Young Modulus55 GPa
Poisson Ratio0.26
Refractive IndexN/A
Speed of Sound2680 m/s
Thermal Conductivity11 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion9.4×10-6 K-1

Reactivity
Valence3
Electronegativity1.2
ElectronAffinity50 kJ/mol
Ionization Energies
593.4, 1170, 1990, 4250 kJ/mol

Health and Safety
Autoignition PointN/A
FlashpointN/A
Heat of CombustionN/A
DOT Hazard ClassN/A
DOT NumbersN/A
EU NumberN/A
NFPA Fire RatingN/A
NFPA HazardsN/A
NFPA Health RatingN/A
NFPA Reactivity RatingN/A
RTECS NumberRTECSLW3850000
NFPA LabelN/A

Classifications
Alternate NamesNone
Names of AllotropesNone
Blockf
GroupN/A
Period6
Electron Configuration[Xe]4f75d16s2
ColorSilver
Discovery
1880 in Switzerland
Gas phaseN/A
CAS NumberCAS7440-54-2
CID NumberCID23982
Gmelin NumberN/A
NSC NumberN/A
RTECS NumberRTECSLW3850000

Electrical properties
Electrical TypeConductor
Electrical Conductivity7.7×105 S/m
Resistivity1.3×10-6 m Ω
Superconducting Point1.083

Magnetic properties
Magnetic TypeFerromagnetic
Curie Point292 K
Mass Magnetic SusceptibilityN/A
Molar Magnetic SusceptibilityN/A
Volume Magnetic SusceptibilityN/A

Abundances
% in Universe2×10-7%
% in Sun2×10-7%
% in Meteorites0.000023%
% in Earth's Crust0.00052%
% in Oceans7×10-11%
% in HumansN/A

Atomic dimensions and structure
Atomic Radius233 pm
Covalent RadiusN/A
Van der Waals RadiusN/A
Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal
Lattice Angles
π/2, π/2, 2 π/3
Lattice Constants
363.6, 363.6, 578.26 pm
Space Group NameP63/mmc
Space Group Number194

Nuclear Properties
Half-LifeStable
LifetimeStable
Decay ModeN/A
Quantum Numbers9D2
Neutron Cross Section4.9×104
Neutron Mass Absorption7.3
Known Isotopes
134Gd, 135Gd, 136Gd, 137Gd, 138Gd, 139Gd, 140Gd, 141Gd, 142Gd, 143Gd, 144Gd, 145Gd, 146Gd, 147Gd, 148Gd, 149Gd, 150Gd, 151Gd, 152Gd, 153Gd, 154Gd, 155Gd, 156Gd, 157Gd, 158Gd, 159Gd, 160Gd, 161Gd, 162Gd, 163Gd, 164Gd, 165Gd, 166Gd, 167Gd, 168Gd, 169Gd
Stable Isotopes
154Gd, 155Gd, 156Gd, 157Gd, 158Gd, 160Gd
Isotopic Abundances
152Gd0.2%
154Gd2.18%
155Gd14.8%
156Gd20.47%
157Gd15.65%
158Gd24.84%
160Gd21.86%


Notes on the properties of Gadolinium:

Specific Heat: Value given for solid phase.

Up to date, curated data provided by
Mathematica's ElementData function from Wolfram Research, Inc.

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