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Technical data for Gold

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Overview
NameGold
SymbolAu
Atomic Number79
Atomic Weight196.96655
Density19.3 g/cm3
Melting Point1064.18 °C
Boiling Point2856 °C

Thermal properties
PhaseSolid
Melting Point1064.18 °C
Boiling Point2856 °C
Absolute Melting Point1337.33 K
Absolute Boiling Point3129 K
Critical PressureN/A
Critical TemperatureN/A
Heat of Fusion12.5 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization330 kJ/mol
Heat of CombustionN/A
Specific Heat129.1 J/(kg K)[note]
Adiabatic IndexN/A
Neel PointN/A
Thermal Conductivity320 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion0.0000142 K-1

Bulk physical properties
Density19.3 g/cm3
Density (Liquid)17.31 g/cm3
Molar Volume0.00001021
Brinell Hardness2450 MPa
Mohs Hardness2.5 MPa
Vickers Hardness216 MPa
Bulk Modulus220 GPa
Shear Modulus27 GPa
Young Modulus78 GPa
Poisson Ratio0.44
Refractive IndexN/A
Speed of Sound1740 m/s
Thermal Conductivity320 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion0.0000142 K-1

Reactivity
Valence5
Electronegativity2.54
ElectronAffinity222.8 kJ/mol
Ionization Energies
890.1, 1980 kJ/mol

Health and Safety
Autoignition PointN/A
FlashpointN/A
Heat of CombustionN/A
DOT Hazard ClassN/A
DOT NumbersN/A
EU NumberN/A
NFPA Fire Rating0
NFPA HazardsN/A
NFPA Health Rating2
NFPA Reactivity Rating0
RTECS NumberRTECSMD5070000
NFPA LabelNFPA Label

Classifications
Alternate NamesAurum
Names of AllotropesNone
Blockd
Group11
Period6
Electron Configuration[Xe]4f145d106s1
ColorGold
Discovery
2500 BC
Gas phaseN/A
CAS NumberCAS7440-57-5
CID NumberCID23985
Gmelin NumberN/A
NSC NumberN/A
RTECS NumberRTECSMD5070000

Electrical properties
Electrical TypeConductor
Electrical Conductivity4.5×107 S/m
Resistivity2.2×10-8 m Ω
Superconducting PointN/A

Magnetic properties
Magnetic TypeDiamagnetic
Curie PointN/A
Mass Magnetic Susceptibility-1.78×10-9
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility-3.51×10-10
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility-0.0000344

Abundances
% in Universe6×10-8%
% in Sun1×10-7%
% in Meteorites0.000017%
% in Earth's Crust3.1×10-7%
% in Oceans5×10-9%
% in Humans0.00001%

Atomic dimensions and structure
Atomic Radius174 pm
Covalent Radius144 pm
Van der Waals Radius166 pm
Crystal StructureFace Centered Cubic
Lattice Angles
π/2, π/2, π/2
Lattice Constants
407.82, 407.82, 407.82 pm
Space Group NameFm_ 3m
Space Group Number225

Nuclear Properties
Half-LifeStable
LifetimeStable
Decay ModeN/A
Quantum Numbers2S1/2
Neutron Cross Section98.7
Neutron Mass Absorption0.017
Known Isotopes
169Au, 170Au, 171Au, 172Au, 173Au, 174Au, 175Au, 176Au, 177Au, 178Au, 179Au, 180Au, 181Au, 182Au, 183Au, 184Au, 185Au, 186Au, 187Au, 188Au, 189Au, 190Au, 191Au, 192Au, 193Au, 194Au, 195Au, 196Au, 197Au, 198Au, 199Au, 200Au, 201Au, 202Au, 203Au, 204Au, 205Au
Stable Isotopes
197Au
Isotopic Abundances
197Au100%


Notes on the properties of Gold:

Specific Heat: Value given for solid phase.

Up to date, curated data provided by
Mathematica's ElementData function from Wolfram Research, Inc.

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