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KCaTitanium Isotope DataScTiVCrMnFeCoNiCuZnGaGeAsSeBrKr
RbSrYZrNbMoTcRuRhPdAgCdInSnSbTeIXe
CsBaLaCePrNdPmSmEuGdTbDyHoErTmYbLuHfTaWReOsIrPtAuHgTlPbBiPoAtRn
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Titanium     

Titanium

Atomic Weight 47.867
Density 4.507 g/cm3
Melting Point 1668 °C
Boiling Point 3287 °C
Full technical data

This titanium blisk (bladed impeller disk) is from the intake stage of a jet engine, where the light weight and high strength of titanium are key. Titanium is expensive because it must be cast under inert atmosphere.

Scroll down to see examples of Titanium.
The Elements book Mad Science book Periodic Table Poster  Click here to buy a book, photographic periodic table poster, card deck, or 3D print based on the images you see here!
Titanium Expensive pen

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Expensive pen.
This is an obscenely expensive solid titanium pen from Matt D Tactical. Very nice, and unlike certain other titanium pens, this one is actually made of real titanium.
Source: Matt D Tactical
Contributor:
Acquired: 13 January, 2010
Text Updated: 13 January, 2010
Price: $237
Size: "
Purity: >94%
Titanium Schick Quattro Titanium blade

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Schick Quattro Titanium blade.
A Schick Quattro brand "titanium" shaving blade. I have not tested this blade, but if there's any titanium it would be in the form of a titanium nitride coating, not solid titanium.
Source: Walmart
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 31 October, 2009
Text Updated: 31 October, 2009
Price: $2
Size: 2"
Purity: <1%
Titanium Earrings with rutile

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Earrings with rutile.
This is a titanium earring with rutile quartz, which is appropriate since rutile quartz contains inclusions of titanium dioxide.
Source: Dan Klarmann
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 21 April, 2009
Text Updated: 18 October, 2009
Price: Anonymous
Size: 1"
Purity: >99%
Titanium Gas phase titanium crystals

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Gas phase titanium crystals.
Shiny vapor-deposited titanium crystals.
Source: Ethan Currens
Contributor: Ethan Currens
Acquired: 17 October, 2009
Text Updated: 29 October, 2009
Price: Donated
Size: 0.5"
Purity: 99.99%
Titanium Dental implants

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Dental implants.
Assorted titanium dental implants
Source: Dan Klarmann
Contributor: Dan Klarmann
Acquired: 17 October, 2009
Text Updated: 18 October, 2009
Price: Donated
Size: 0.5"
Purity: >99%
Titanium Titanium hammer

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Titanium hammer.
Hammers are sold by weight. A hammer that isn't heavy enough can't do the job no matter what material it's made of, so hammers made of a very light metal like titanium simply have to be larger. Is there a point to using an expensive light metal to make something that is defined and sold by weight? If there is, I don't know it.
Source: Farm & Fleet
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 22 April, 2009
Text Updated: 23 April, 2009
Price: $80
Size: 5"
Purity: >90%
Titanium Lovely necklace

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Lovely necklace.
Very, very nice titanium necklace (or technically known as a gorget) by MrTitanium. It looks like something Spock would wear around his neck during one of those Vulcan mating rituals.
Source: Dan Klarmann
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 21 April, 2009
Text Updated: 23 April, 2009
Price: Anonymous
Size: 6"
Purity: >99%
Titanium Museum-grade sample

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Museum-grade sample.
Another view of the lovely titanium crystal bars described earlier.
Source: Theodore Gray
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 21 April, 2009
Text Updated: 21 April, 2009
Price: See Listing
Size: 6"
Purity: >99.99%
Sample Group: RGB Samples
The Elements book Mad Science book Periodic Table Poster  Click here to buy a book, photographic periodic table poster, card deck, or 3D print based on the images you see here!
Titanium Museum-grade sample

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Museum-grade sample.
Another view of the lovely titanium crystal bars described earlier.
Source: Theodore Gray
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 21 April, 2009
Text Updated: 21 April, 2009
Price: See Listing
Size: 6"
Purity: >99.99%
Sample Group: RGB Samples
Titanium Titanium white paint

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Titanium white paint.
Titanium dioxide is the opacity in most paint, and the white in nearly all white paint.
Source: eBay seller charltonmills
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 16 April, 2009
Text Updated: 17 April, 2009
Price: $6
Size: 1"
Purity: <30%
Titanium Razor foil

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Razor foil.
Another, more intact, titanium nitride coated (on the inside) electric razor foil.
Source: Farm & Fleet
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 8 April, 2009
Text Updated: 9 April, 2009
Price: $30
Size: 2"
Purity: <1%
Titanium Titanium headphone speaker cone

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Titanium headphone speaker cone.
This is a very shiny speaker cone from a pair of headphones prominently labeled as having titanium speaker cones. I have not tested the material, but it certainly looks like it could be genuine titanium, and I have no reason to doubt it.
Source: Radio Shack
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 24 March, 2009
Text Updated: 24 March, 2009
Price: $40
Size: 2"
Purity: 94%
Titanium Fake titanium golf club

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Fake titanium golf club.
This golf club, sold by a major national sporting goods chain, is completely fake. It has "6061 TATANIUM" prominently embedded in the metal of the club head, but tests indicate that it is plain aluminum. The fact that "6061" is a standard industrial aluminum alloy does not look good.
Compare this to my earlier sample titanium golf club, which is genuine titanium despite costing $10 less at Walmart.
Source: Dick's Sporting Goods
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 24 March, 2009
Text Updated: 24 March, 2009
Price: $40
Size: 5"
Purity: 0%
Titanium Extremely small scissors

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Extremely small scissors.
Nick picked up these scissors at a flea market in Germany. The handles are normal sized, but the scissor part is extremely small, just big enough to cut one string, or more likely, one suture thread. I think only a medical application could explain the small size and exotic nature of this implement.
Source: Nick Mann
Contributor: Nick Mann
Acquired: 8 February, 2009
Text Updated: 22 April, 2009
Price: Donated
Size: 6"
Purity: >90%
Titanium Titanium nitride razor blade

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Titanium nitride razor blade.
The blades from inside a rotary electric shaver. The gold color is titanium nitride, a hard, abrasion-resistant coating. See the shaver foil sample also listed under titanium for more about the use of titanium in shaving and other products.
Source: Walmart
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 1 December, 2008
Text Updated: 17 March, 2009
Price: $30
Size: 2"
Purity: <1%
Titanium Rough titanium metal in slag

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Rough titanium metal in slag.
For a recent Popular Science article I made titanium metal by thermite reduction. (This page has a detailed description of how it's done by the guy who invented this particular method.) The results were spectacular in terms of fire and heat, so-so in terms of actual metal produced. Shown here are several examples of the slag and metal from these reactions. The crystals are some combination of garnet, sapphire, and maybe fluorite, which come from the bi-products of the reaction. Crystals can form because the reaction is so hot that it creates not only molten titanium but also molten aluminum oxide, molten calcium fluoride, not to mention molten flower pot if that's what you're running the reaction in.
Source: Theodore Gray
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 30 October, 2008
Text Updated: 31 October, 2008
Price: $1
Size: 1"
Purity: <90%
Titanium Rough titanium metal in slag

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Rough titanium metal in slag.
For a recent Popular Science article I made titanium metal by thermite reduction. (This page has a detailed description of how it's done by the guy who invented this particular method.) The results were spectacular in terms of fire and heat, so-so in terms of actual metal produced. Shown here are several examples of the slag and metal from these reactions. The crystals are some combination of garnet, sapphire, and maybe fluorite, which come from the bi-products of the reaction. Crystals can form because the reaction is so hot that it creates not only molten titanium but also molten aluminum oxide, molten calcium fluoride, not to mention molten flower pot if that's what you're running the reaction in.
Source: Theodore Gray
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 30 October, 2008
Text Updated: 31 October, 2008
Price: $1
Size: 1"
Purity: <90%
Titanium Rough titanium metal in slag

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Rough titanium metal in slag.
For a recent Popular Science article I made titanium metal by thermite reduction. (This page has a detailed description of how it's done by the guy who invented this particular method.) The results were spectacular in terms of fire and heat, so-so in terms of actual metal produced. Shown here are several examples of the slag and metal from these reactions. The crystals are some combination of garnet, sapphire, and maybe fluorite, which come from the bi-products of the reaction. Crystals can form because the reaction is so hot that it creates not only molten titanium but also molten aluminum oxide, molten calcium fluoride, not to mention molten flower pot if that's what you're running the reaction in.
Source: Theodore Gray
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 30 October, 2008
Text Updated: 31 October, 2008
Price: $1
Size: 1"
Purity: <90%
The Elements book Mad Science book Periodic Table Poster  Click here to buy a book, photographic periodic table poster, card deck, or 3D print based on the images you see here!
Titanium Rough titanium metal in slag

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Rough titanium metal in slag.
For a recent Popular Science article I made titanium metal by thermite reduction. (This page has a detailed description of how it's done by the guy who invented this particular method.) The results were spectacular in terms of fire and heat, so-so in terms of actual metal produced. Shown here are several examples of the slag and metal from these reactions. The crystals are some combination of garnet, sapphire, and maybe fluorite, which come from the bi-products of the reaction. Crystals can form because the reaction is so hot that it creates not only molten titanium but also molten aluminum oxide, molten calcium fluoride, not to mention molten flower pot if that's what you're running the reaction in.
Source: Theodore Gray
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 30 October, 2008
Text Updated: 31 October, 2008
Price: $1
Size: 1"
Purity: <90%
Titanium Rough titanium metal in slag

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Rough titanium metal in slag.
For a recent Popular Science article I made titanium metal by thermite reduction. (This page has a detailed description of how it's done by the guy who invented this particular method.) The results were spectacular in terms of fire and heat, so-so in terms of actual metal produced. Shown here are several examples of the slag and metal from these reactions. The crystals are some combination of garnet, sapphire, and maybe fluorite, which come from the bi-products of the reaction. Crystals can form because the reaction is so hot that it creates not only molten titanium but also molten aluminum oxide, molten calcium fluoride, not to mention molten flower pot if that's what you're running the reaction in.
Source: Theodore Gray
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 30 October, 2008
Text Updated: 31 October, 2008
Price: $1
Size: 1"
Purity: <90%
Titanium Rough titanium metal in slag

Larger | Spin | 3D
Rough titanium metal in slag.
For a recent Popular Science article I made titanium metal by thermite reduction. (This page has a detailed description of how it's done by the guy who invented this particular method.) The results were spectacular in terms of fire and heat, so-so in terms of actual metal produced. Shown here are several examples of the slag and metal from these reactions. The crystals are some combination of garnet, sapphire, and maybe fluorite, which come from the bi-products of the reaction. Crystals can form because the reaction is so hot that it creates not only molten titanium but also molten aluminum oxide, molten calcium fluoride, not to mention molten flower pot if that's what you're running the reaction in.
Source: Theodore Gray
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 30 October, 2008
Text Updated: 31 October, 2008
Price: $1
Size: 1"
Purity: <90%
Titanium Platinized titanium plating electrode

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Platinized titanium plating electrode.
This is an electrode meant to deliver current to an electroplating bath.

As far as I can tell "platinized titanium" in this context means simply platinum plated titanium. For electroplating use the ideal non-consumable electrode would be solid platinum, because it is the metal most resistant to oxidation under extreme chemical and electrical conditions.

The small issue of its extremely high cost is the only reason people look for alternatives to solid platinum. Titanium is also a good, corrosion resistant metal, so it makes sense to plate platinum over it: Any small imperfections in the platinum coating will not lead to rapid failure as they would if the underlying metal were more vulnerable to breakdown.
Source: FDJ On Time
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 14 June, 2008
Text Updated: 14 June, 2008
Price: $60
Size: 1.5"
Purity: >99%
Titanium Titanium nitride razor foil

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Titanium nitride razor foil.
This is the foil covering from a common electric shaver. Normally it would be curved around a series of blades that vibrate back and forth across it. You are looking here at the inside of the foil, the part that would be in contact with the blades. The gold color is a good indication that the surface has been coated with titanium nitride, a very hard material often used to coat cutting tools due to its abrasion resistance.

This particular foil is from a brand of razor that prominently displays the word TITANIUM on its packaging, in shiny metallic letters. I've been told (by an executive at a rival razor company) that they used to use the word titanium on the packaging without actually bothering to include any titanium nitride, or any other titanium, in the product itself. Based on this sample they are now using real titanium nitride, though it's still somewhat misleading in my opinion to promote the thing so strongly as a TITANIUM razor when in fact the coating is only a minor factor in its performance.

But at least there is real titanium in the product, unlike with many I investigated in my Popular Science column on fake titanium products.

Source: Walmart
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 14 June, 2008
Text Updated: 14 June, 2008
Price: $30
Size: 2"
Purity: <1%
The Elements book Mad Science book Periodic Table Poster  Click here to buy a book, photographic periodic table poster, card deck, or 3D print based on the images you see here!
Titanium Solid titanium dive knife

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Solid titanium dive knife.
I wrote a column for Popular Science about fake titanium products (for example, a "titanium" golf club that is actually made of ordinary aluminum). In that column I discuss "titanium" knives and scissors, which are typically actually steel with a titanium nitride coating. This isn't fake, in that there is real titanium being used in a sensible way, but at the same time they are not really solid titanium either. In fact, I say in that article that solid titanium cutting tools don't exist and wouldn't really make much sense, since titanium nitride coated steel would stay sharper much longer, and is therefore actually a higher quality product than solid titanium would be.
But of course, I failed to take into account the scuba diving industry, which likes all things titanium. (You can read about this in the description of my solid titanium crowbar.) This is a solid titanium dive knife (plastic handle removed to show how the titanium core extends all the way through the handle). It really is solid titanium, it passes the spark test described in my Pop Sci article.
Source: eBay seller scubadiscount
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 3 February, 2008
Text Updated: 3 February, 2008
Price: $75
Size: 9"
Purity: >94%
Titanium High purity plate

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High purity plate.
This is a nice curved section of high-purity titanium plate, possibly cut from the edge of a piece intended to become a sputtering target.
Source: eBay seller mrj33
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 8 December, 2007
Text Updated: 8 December, 2007
Price: $26
Size: 5"
Purity: 99.998%
Titanium Titanium e-beam window

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Titanium e-beam window.
This is a small section (about 5 inches long) of a much longer (4-5 foot) titanium window from a 5 million volt Dynamitron. A Dynamitron is a large vacuum tube (by large I mean 4 stories tall) designed to create a beam of high energy electrons that can be used to do useful things like cross-link plastics or create Lichtenberg Figures. In order to do these things the electrons have to exit the vacuum tube and enter the surrounding air, where the objects to be irradiated are located. That's where the window comes in.

What's needed is a material that can seal off the vacuum tube while at the same time allowing the electrons to pass through with minimum loss of energy. You might not immediately think of metal as a good material for this since it would seem, at least to me, that the electrons would just hit the metal and be conducted away. But apparently when they are going fast enough they blast right through. This is quite thin foil, presumably just barely strong enough to withstand the pressure of the surrounding atmosphere. In use it is stretched tightly in a frame, bowed in quite a bit by the air pressing in to form a concave cylindrical shape.

Here is a picture of the bottom end of the Dynamitron showing the horn where the electrons exit.
Dynamitron horn

The window made of this material is located right at the bottom of the triangle-shaped object: You can see the row of bolts that hold it in place. Underneath the horn you can see the carts that transport material to be irradiated under the beam. If the machine were switched on when this picture was taken you would see intense blue light from the exiting electrons hitting air molecules, and I would most likely be dead from x-ray exposure.

Source: Kent State NEO Beam Facility
Contributor: Kent State NEO Beam Facility
Acquired: 8 December, 2007
Text Updated: 16 March, 2009
Price: Donated
Size: 5"
Purity: >99%
Titanium Titanium nitride coated bit

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Titanium nitride coated bit.
This is a fairly common type of milling bit, a double-sided square end mill. It is intended for use in a vertical milling machine to cut steel, aluminum, brass, or other such metals. The base material is high-speed steel, a tough, hard alloy that by itself is good enough to cut a wide range of materials. The gold color comes from a titanium nitride surface coating, which is even harder, and allows the bit to cut abrasive metals for longer before becoming dull. TiN coated bits are not as good as tungsten carbide bits, but they are a whole lot cheaper.
Source: ENCO
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 2 December, 2007
Text Updated: 2 December, 2007
Price: $10
Size: 3"
Purity: <1%
Titanium Titanium belly button ring

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Titanium belly button ring.
I sent my assistant Nick out to the local mall to find some titanium body jewelry to test for an article I was working on for my Popular Science column. Many products these days use "titanium" in a promotional way on their packaging: Not all of them contain actual titanium. We found several fake titanium products, but the piercing jewelry was all real, because fake titanium inserts would likely cause bad reactions with the skin, or would corrode. You might be able to get away with selling a fake titanium golf club, but a fake titanium tongue stud would get you in trouble.
Source: Hot Topic
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 20 November, 2007
Text Updated: 21 November, 2007
Price: $25
Size: 0.75"
Purity: 94%
The Elements book Mad Science book Periodic Table Poster  Click here to buy a book, photographic periodic table poster, card deck, or 3D print based on the images you see here!
Titanium Titanium ring

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Titanium ring.
A slightly more interesting common titanium ring I got because I realized that my only commercially produced titanium ring was really quite dull.
Source: eBay seller ashleysfinejewelry
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 4 September, 2007
Text Updated: 5 September, 2007
Price: $25
Size: 1"
Purity: 98%
Titanium Anodized titanium earrings

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Anodized titanium earrings.
These are silly little Space Needle tourist earrings I got on a trip to Seattle with my son. They are either laser or water-jet cut, I'm not sure how to tell the difference for sure, but if I had to guess I would say water-jet because of the slightly larger diameter of the cut at the start and finish of each line. A laser should cut perfectly. But that's just a guess.
The color comes from anodizing the titanium, as I have written about in my Popular Science Column.
Source: Seattle
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 17 June, 2007
Text Updated: 9 November, 2007
Price: $20
Size: 1"
Purity: 98%
Titanium Camping utensils

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Camping utensils.
People who climb mountains don't like to carry any extra weight, but they do like to eat. Hence the proliferation of very lightweight titanium eating utensils. Shown here is a collection of styles including traditional knife, fork, and spoon, as well as the slightly more exotic spork, and even a folding spork useful if you're seriously pressed for space. The chopsticks are also folding: The bamboo ends unscrew and store inside the titanium tube that forms the rest of the chopstick.
Source: eBay seller wrightstuff1903
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 17 February, 2007
Text Updated: 17 February, 2007
Price: $100
Size: 7"
Purity: 99%
Titanium Sputtering target

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Sputtering target.
Sputtering targets are used in vacuum vapor deposition machines as a source of the material to be deposited. A hot plasma or electron beam is used to blast material off the surface of a disk of material like this inside a vacuum chamber. The material is vaporized and travels through the vacuum to strike the surface of something you want to have coated. This is done very commonly with chromium and other shiny metals. I'm not sure why you'd want to do it with titanium, but I'm sure there's a good reason.
Source: eBay seller anish62
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 10 February, 2007
Text Updated: 10 February, 2007
Price: $25
Size: 4"
Purity: 99.995%
Titanium Element coin

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Element coin.
Dave Hamric sells element samples under the name Metallium. He's developed a line of coins struck out of various common and uncommon metals: They are quite lovely, and very reasonably priced, considering the difficulty of creating some of them.
Here is the back side of this coin (click either picture to see it larger):

Click the Sample Group link below to see many other coins made of various elements, or click the link to his website above if you want to buy one like this.
Source: Dave Hamric
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 1 December, 2006
Text Updated: 14 January, 2007
Price: $10
Size: 0.75"
Purity: >99%
Sample Group: Coins
The Elements book Mad Science book Periodic Table Poster  Click here to buy a book, photographic periodic table poster, card deck, or 3D print based on the images you see here!
Titanium Jet engine blisk

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Jet engine blisk.
Another intake stage bladed impeller disk (see above for more complete description). Sorry, lost track of where exactly this one was from.
Source: Theodore Gray
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 1 November, 2006
Text Updated: 16 March, 2009
Price: Donated
Size: 5"
Purity: >90%
Titanium Wire cut gear

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Wire cut gear.
This is a titanium gear resting in the blank from which it was cut. How was it cut, you might ask? Not with a laser, which couldn't cut that deep. Not with a water jet, which would leave a more ragged cut on the down-stream side. It was cut by wire EDM (electronic discharge machining).
A thin, stretched tungsten wire nibbles slowly away at the titanium by means of an electric current running from the wire to the titanium. Tiny sparks vaporize the titanium more rapidly than the tungsten wire, which is continuously refreshed from a spool.
This method is slow (maybe an hour to finish this small gear) and it can only cut shapes with straight edges. But it's very precise, and it places virtually no stress on the part being made, so you can machine out incredibly delicate, finely detailed shapes without breaking them.
Source: Ethan Currens
Contributor: Ethan Currens
Acquired: 30 October, 2006
Text Updated: 30 November, 2006
Price: Donated
Size: 2"
Purity: 99.4%
Titanium Raven Penny of Dal Tun, type 1 coin

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Raven Penny of Dal Tun, type 1 coin.
Shire Post Mint makes and sells an extensive line of fantasy coins based on the stories and worlds of the Lord of the Rings, Star Trek, George R.R. Martin, and others. What I like about this of course is the fact that many of them are made of unusual elements including titanium, niobium, and even hafnium (click the Sample Group link below to see the others).

description card

If it's still available, you can buy this coin from Shire Post Mint. (And if not, they have many others like it: If that link doesn't work, go to their home page and follow the links to find lots of coins.)

Source: Shire Post Mint
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 10 June, 2006
Text Updated: 11 August, 2007
Price: $12
Size: 0.75"
Purity: 99.7%
Sample Group: Coins
Titanium Crystal ring

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Crystal ring.
This is a ring machined from a solid block of pure crystalline titanium. I start with a piece of titanium crystal bar, select an attractive area to become the top surface of the ring, and then machine away everything that isn't ring. (Much as Michelangelo said that to create his statue of David from a block of marble he simply cut away everything that wasn't David.)
The crystal surface is "natural" in the sense that it grew that way as the bar was being formed out of titanium iodide gas. (Of course it's not a naturally-occurring mineral you would dig out of the ground, since that growth happened in a factory. But neither is it an entirely artificial surface intentionally formed in that shape.)
Titanium has a reputation for being hard to machine, but this high purity material is actually fairly easy to work with, as long as you're using a solid tungsten carbide milling bit and lots of high-grade cutting fluid. Because it consists entirely of fairly large crystals, it's brittle and cannot be resized by bending or rolling, which means the rings must be cut to the exact final size right from the start. Brittle doesn't mean weak: The bands are actually very strong despite being quite thin. Brittle simply means that if you apply enough force, the material will crack instead of bending: In the case of these rings, that's quite a lot of force.
If you're interested in a ring like this for yourself, they are for sale on a special order basis from my partner Max Whitby and myself. The price has not been set, but will probably be around $500. It's higher than the typical titanium rings you see for sale elsewhere because there is only a limited supply of this titanium crystal bar left in the world, and they're not making any more (a new, cheaper process for purifying titanium has been invented which does not result in crystals of this sort). And each ring must be custom-machined from a carefully selected piece of crystal bar: No two are alike.
This is a ring for someone who really appreciates titanium: It's the only element sample I carry with me everywhere. (Well, except for my titanium dental implant, but somehow that's not quite the same thing.)
Source: Theodore Gray
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 14 December, 2005
Text Updated: 11 August, 2007
Price: Donated
Size: 1"
Purity: >99.99%
Sample Group: RGB Samples
Titanium Arrowhead

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Arrowhead.
This arrowhead claims to be titanium coated. It might be for all I know, and at least they have the honesty to say it's not solid titanium, which gives the claim of a titanium coating more credibility. All I can say is, this thing looks like it would hurt.
Source: Walmart
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 15 November, 2005
Price: $10
Size: 2"
Purity: 1%
The Elements book Mad Science book Periodic Table Poster  Click here to buy a book, photographic periodic table poster, card deck, or 3D print based on the images you see here!
Titanium Some kind of body part

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Some kind of body part.
This was described as a hip joint part, but it's unlike any of my other hip joints. It does have a shape that suggest a socket, but I'm not clear exactly how it would fit into a joint assembly. Maybe someone will enlighten me?
Source: eBay seller dandn21
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 5 February, 2005
Text Updated: 11 March, 2007
Price: $15
Size: 2.5"
Purity: 99.9%
Sample Group: Medical
Titanium Money clip

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Money clip.
The owner of Superior Titanium sent me this lovely example of one of the products they sell, a titanium money clip. The blue color is characteristic of anodized titanium.
Source: Superior Titanium
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 15 November, 2004
Text Updated: 11 August, 2007
Price: Donated
Size: 2.5"
Purity: 99.4%
Titanium Museum-grade sample

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Museum-grade sample.
In early 2004 Max Whitby and I started selling individual element samples identical or similar to the samples we use in the museum displays we build. These are top-quality samples presented in attractive forms appropriate to the particular element. They are for sale from Max's website and also on eBay where you will find an ever-changing selection of samples (click the link to see the current listings).
This stunning titanium crystal bar is scrap left over from refining high-purity titanium by hot wire decomposition of titanium iodide. There is a molybdenum electrode sticking out one end of each, while the other end is sawn off: The original bar was much longer. Titanium is no longer refined using this process and there is a very limited stock of these ends left in the world.
The diameter varies somewhat as shown in the photo, and some have flat areas, but all show interesting dendritic crystals. Very occasionally one will have a fissure that allows one to see how the crystals grow out from the center.
Source: Theodore Gray
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 15 November, 2004
Text Updated: 11 August, 2007
Price: See Listing
Size: 6"
Purity: >99.99%
Sample Group: RGB Samples
Titanium Me

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Me.
Just in time for my 40th birthday, I have had my first artificial body part installed, thus transforming me into a titanium sample. OK, it's just a tiny dental implant, but nevertheless, it is titanium, and it is permanently (I hope!) embedded in my jaw bone.
Source: Dr. Kunas
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 29 October, 2004
Price: $1200
Size: 0.5"
Purity: 99%
Titanium Water jet sign

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Water jet sign.
The guys at Kaistar R&D have the most marvelous computer-controlled waterjet: It cuts through just about anything, including thick tungsten plate, using nothing but a jet of water (mixed with garnet abrasive). Admittedly it's a very, very high pressure jet of water, but still, it's cutting with water and that's amazing. The machine has a computer terminal with a CAD program built in, and Philip Kapchenko very kindly programmed it to cut this sign for me. Since they deal only with the highest purity metals I'm listing this as four-nines purity: That's probably conservative.
Source: Kaistar R&D
Contributor: Kaistar R&D
Acquired: 15 October, 2004
Price: Donated
Size: 12"
Purity: 99.99%
The Elements book Mad Science book Periodic Table Poster  Click here to buy a book, photographic periodic table poster, card deck, or 3D print based on the images you see here!
Titanium Sputtering targets

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Sputtering targets.
These are a pair of high-purity titanium sputtering targets (used, presumably, for vacuum-plating things with titanium). They ring beautifully: I must get a good recording one day.
Source: eBay seller choppermr
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 10 August, 2004
Price: $1
Size: 12"
Purity: 99.9%
Titanium Etching

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Etching.
Titanium is one of several metals that can form colorful oxide coatings, with the thickness of the coating determining the color. (The color comes from the fact that the thickness of the coating matches the wavelength of one or another color of light.) Niobium earrings are a good example, as are bismuth crystals. But this is the first time I've seen an actual painting made out of different thicknesses of oxide. My guess is that they used a brush connected to a battery, with the other end clipped to the titanium plate. By varying the voltage and/or time they could vary the thickness of the oxide coating and thereby form different colors.

It's quite remarkable that this was made in the 1970's when titanium was even more exotic and expensive than it is now. It must have been quite expensive to produce, and it's an interesting and quite beautiful piece of art, but I'm going to hazard a guess that it was not successful as art. This guess is based largely on the fact that people in the art world are incredibly bad at recognizing really interesting ideas until someone else tells them it's OK. Titanium doesn't have a lobby in the art world. (The snobbery of the contemporary art world is based on the deep insecurity that comes from having no real basis for preferring one piece over another, or one artist over another: You have to rely on fashion, which is another word for what everyone else thinks. It hasn't always been this way: Back when you had to be able to paint to be a painter it was much easier to tell what was good painting and what wasn't, and people were more relaxed.)

Source: eBay seller hoosier981
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 10 August, 2004
Price: $15
Size:12"
Purity: 99%
Titanium Crystal bar

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Crystal bar.
This crystal bar is very similar to the one I have from Wah Chang (see above), but this one is from former Soviet Union production. The process that makes these crystal bars is no longer used by anyone, including Wah Chang, so the bits of stock remaining in a few places are all that's left. A few of these are being offered on eBay by Kaistar R&D: Click the source link below if you want to get one.
Source: Kaistar R&D
Contributor: Kaistar R&D
Acquired: 6 August, 2004
Price: Donated
Size: 1"
Purity: 99.995%
Titanium Mini element collection

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Mini element collection.
This is a nice little set from the 1960's. The enclosed price list indicates it cost a few dollars, and the enclosed mercury sample indicates it predates current environmental concerns! Here's a picture of the whole 2-box set:
Jr Collection of Elements

Source: Blake Ferris
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 15 July, 2004
Price: $61/set
Size: 1"
Purity: >98%
Titanium Bracelet

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Bracelet.
A nice little bracelet made of titanium.
Source: eBay seller rfjewelry
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 20 June, 2004
Text Updated: 16 March, 2009
Price: $25
Size: 7"
Purity: >90%
The Elements book Mad Science book Periodic Table Poster  Click here to buy a book, photographic periodic table poster, card deck, or 3D print based on the images you see here!
Titanium Bag of bolts

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Bag of bolts.
Good old bag-o-bolts, only these have the weirdest triangular drive socket I've ever seen. Even my 25-piece security screw driver set, able to remove just about every kind of screw that is meant to be hard to remove, doesn't have a driver for these. I guess it's a kind of an arms race, and right now these screws are winning. Made of aircraft titanium, of course.
Source: eBay seller aerosource
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 20 June, 2004
Text Updated: 16 March, 2009
Price: $10/100
Size: 1"
Purity: >90%
Titanium Crystal bar

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Crystal bar.
High-purity titanium crystal bar with an embedded molybdenum electrode. This is the cut-off end of a long crystal bar, the remainder having been turned into titanium metal stock: These crystal bars are the final stage of purification before the metal is fabricated into desired shapes, or used to make alloys. My guess is that they don't use the titanium at the end right near the electrode because a certain amount of molybdenum contamination diffuses into the metal as it is being deposited, but that's pure speculation on my part.
It's hard to show in pictures but the surface of this bar consists of beautifully shiny, mirror-like concave and convex surfaces quite reminiscent of hafnium crystal bar formed by iodic decomposition: The 3D rotatable image shows this much better than the normal photo.
Source: Wah Chang
Contributor: Wah Chang
Acquired: 14 May, 2004
Price: Donated
Size: 7"
Purity: >99.9%
Titanium Scissors

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Scissors.
Titanium scissors? Well, why not. Nice smooth action. Not sure if they are really made of titanium, but they could be.
Source: Walmart
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 2 April, 2004
Price: $8
Size: 10"
Purity: <30%
Titanium Nail puller

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Nail puller.
I love titanium tools, too bad they are so expensive! This is a cat's paw style nail puller, very light and probably very strong.
Source: Duluth Trading Company
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 24 March, 2004
Text Updated: 16 March, 2009
Price: $50
Size: 10"
Purity: >90%
Titanium Rough cut plate

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Rough cut plate.
This is fairly heavy (5/16" thick) titanium plate crudely sheared into squares and found at a scrap yard in southern California.
Source: John Wechselberger
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 15 March, 2004
Text Updated: 16 March, 2009
Price: $4
Size: 4"
Purity: >90%
The Elements book Mad Science book Periodic Table Poster  Click here to buy a book, photographic periodic table poster, card deck, or 3D print based on the images you see here!
Titanium Titanium Rorschach test

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Titanium Rorschach test.
Many things have been predicted far in advance of their realization. Arthur C. Clark, the science fiction writer, famously predicted the geosynchronous communications satellite long before rocket technology was anywhere near making it possible. Leonardo da Vinci predicted any number of things, like air planes, helicopters, parachutes, and so on.
But I think it's safe to say that in all the history of the human race, from the earliest hunter-gatherers to the greatest thinkers of the modern age, not a single person ever predicted that a remarkable new metal, stronger and lighter than steel and impervious to rust, would be discovered, refined, and purified and that someone would then decide that the highest and best use of a particular bit of it would be to splatter it onto a cold surface, forming this lovely Rorschach test pattern, and that a huge internet trading system, eBay, would be created so that an otherwise un-saleable, indeed unclassifiable, item like that could be offered, found, and sold to a person like me, who for some reason imagines that having it would be a good idea. That is beyond prediction.
So, what do you think it looks like?
Source: eBay seller goventureout
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 4 January, 2004
Price: $10
Size: 7"
Purity: >90%
Titanium Not titanium candle stick holders

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Not titanium candle stick holders.
Are these candle stick holders really made of titanium? No, they were just claimed to be made of titanium by the seller. In fact they are 98.3% tin with the remainder being primarily copper, according to analysis by x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy at the Center for Microanalysis of Materials, University of Illinois (partially supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under grant DEFG02-91-ER45439). Just another example of why you should be cautions about claims that something is made of titanium.
Source: eBay seller canadalookingforsomething
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 3 December, 2003
Price: $20
Size: 8"
Purity: 0%
Titanium Titanium machine screws

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Titanium machine screws.
Bored silly with describing titanium samples, I used to have a diversion here describing the difference between a bolt and a machine screw. Well, it turns out my description, based on the type of head and the portion of the shaft that is threaded, was completely and utterly wrong. Alert reader David Cook was kind enough to set me straight quite definitively:
No. Actually, the difference between a bolt and screw is based on its application, not appearance. A bolt is used with a nut to produce a clamping force to hold materials together; whereas a screw interlocks threads with the material itself (no nut on the end).

Screws usually have threads all the way up to provide the maximum possible thread-to-thread contact area with the material for maximum holding power. Bolts usually have only enough threads at the tip to attach a nut. But, some bolts also have threads all the way up so that one or more nuts can be installed anywhere.

A screw is perfectly adequate against smaller forces. Humans and machines can easily install screws (no fumbling with a nut). Without a nut, that's one less part to stock and pay for, and one less part to fall off or become lost. Given the large number used, the savings in cost and efficiency make screws an effective solution.

However, against greater forces, the threads in the material are likely to fail and the screw would rip out. Thicker and stronger material would be required to produce strong-enough threads in the material to resist these greater forces. But that would be heavier and more expensive. Instead, a thick, strong nut can be installed to rely on the nut's threads instead of the material's threads. With a nut and a bolt you can use relatively weaker and thinner (usually lighter and less expensive) material.

Your observation that a bolt usually has a hex head or other external-drive is simply because that type of head allows greater force to be applied, which is necessary to achieve the purpose of a bolt. On the other hand, the head of a screw (slotted, Phillips, internal drive) is designed for convenience of installing and removing, rather than great forces. In fact, most screw heads are purposely designed to be torque limiting (the tool slips out) to prevent over-tightening.

In summary, although you may be able to guess at the manufacturer's intended application based on the appearance of the fastener, a bolt or screw is not defined by its appearance, but in how it is used. You can use most screws as bolts, simply by adding nut on the end, and most bolts as screws, simply by tapping (adding threads to) the material.

The nearest analogy I can think of is to select a knife and ask "Is it a kitchen utensil or a weapon?" The manufacturer probably had a particular purpose in mind, and there are certain visible features that would suggest a particular knife is better suited for one application over the other, but what you call it depends on how it is being used.
So, now you know, and now I know.

Source: eBay seller e3134
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 30 November, 2003
Text Updated: 16 March, 2009
Price: $12/6
Size: 2.5"
Purity: >90%
Titanium Titanium guitar pick

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Titanium guitar pick.
I think this is real titanium: It feels right. The thing came with a really cool T-Shirt listing a website whose URL I cannot reproduce here because it now contains a site that is very much not related to titanium guitar picks. Sorry, you'll just have to use your imagination.
I suppose I should ask someone who plays guitar to try it out for me and tell me if there's any magic in a titanium guitar pic.
Source: eBay seller meanderingmetals
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 1 December, 2003
Text Updated: 16 March, 2009
Price: $4
Size: 1"
Purity: >90%
Titanium Titanium pen

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Titanium pen.
Given the poor track record of products that use titanium in their name I should be skeptical about this pen. But Fisher is a respectable company, and it does rather feel like titanium. Some day when I have time I'll test it.
Sadly, reader Jeff Deifik informs me that it's yet another case of a company using the word titanium when in fact they meant titanium nitride, not titanium metal. Oh well, I should have known. Unfortunately for my pocketbook Jeff also pointed me to a pen made of actual titanium, for $237. Watch for it showing up on this site before too long.
Source: eBay seller bargains-by-the-bagfull
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 1 December, 2003
Text Updated: 21 April, 2009
Price: $11.50
Size: 6"
Purity: >90%
The Elements book Mad Science book Periodic Table Poster  Click here to buy a book, photographic periodic table poster, card deck, or 3D print based on the images you see here!
Titanium Titanium caulk

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Titanium caulk.
Oh for crying out loud, has it come to this? Silicone caulk that claims to contain titanium to make it stronger? This has got to be one of the weaker marketing gimmicks I've seen. I got the clear version to be sure I could see the titanium, ha ha. I mean, come on, what kind of idiot would buy a tube of caulk just because it said TITANIUM on it?
Source: Hardware Store
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 25 November, 2003
Price: $3
Size: 10"
Purity: <0.1%
Titanium Haley's Comet commemorative medallion

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Haley's Comet commemorative medallion.
This coin was produced in Japan in commemoration of the visit of Haley's comet in 1986. It is blank on the back face, but for $1 I'm not complaining! At the time it was made titanium was quite an exotic and expensive material and I imagine the token was quite a bit more expensive back then.
The eBay seller described it as a Chinese medallion, but in fact the inscription reads "Haley's comet commemoration" with the name Haley rendered in Japanese katakana (phonetic) lettering which is not used in China.
Source: eBay seller sevyg
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 27 October, 2003
Price: $1.04
Size: 2.5"
Purity: 99%
Sample Group: Coins
Titanium Blisk Bladed Impeller Disk

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Blisk (Bladed Impeller Disk).
This is a fabulously beautiful cast titanium jet engine part. It's titanium rather than nickel super-alloy like the turbine blades I have under nickel because it is part of the intake system, not the combustion or exhaust systems. So it's subject only to incredibly high stresses, not ridiculously incredibly high stresses like the post-combustion parts of the engine.
Imagine how complex (and expensive) the molding and machining of this part must be! But beyond its technical beauty is its aesthetic beauty: Only the smallest fraction of artists can ever hope to create an object of this depth and wonder.

I chose this sample to represent its element in my Photographic Periodic Table Poster. The sample photograph includes text exactly as it appears in the poster, which you are encouraged to buy a copy of.
Periodic Table Poster

Source: John Wechselberger
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 21 August, 2003
Text Updated: 4 May, 2007
Price: $15
Size: 6"
Purity: 99.5%
Titanium Ring

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Ring.
Titanium is gaining popularity as a metal for jewelry because many people who are sensitive to other metals do not react to titanium. It's also a cool-sounding metal which probably helps with the guy market. This is a really cheap ring from eBay: Until I get it tested I'm only about 80% sure it's real titanium.
Source: eBay seller kikitbw
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 25 July, 2003
Price: $16
Size: 0.75"
Purity: 99.5%
Titanium Granular powder

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Granular powder.
This powder is used in fireworks to create a sparkle effect. Presumably the heated titanium burns and glows, producing stars.
Source: United Nuclear
Contributor: United Nuclear
Acquired: 11 April, 2003
Price: $7/2 ounces
Size: 2"
Purity: 99.99%
Sample Group: Powders
The Elements book Mad Science book Periodic Table Poster  Click here to buy a book, photographic periodic table poster, card deck, or 3D print based on the images you see here!
Titanium Golf club

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Golf club.
Considering the number of items that claim to be made of titanium but are not, I bought this cheap golf club purely on speculation. I would have been perfectly happy to report that it was yet another titanium fraud, but actually analysis by x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy at the Center for Microanalysis of Materials, University of Illinois (partially supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under grant DEFG02-91-ER45439) indicates that it is virtually pure titanium! Score one for cut-rate discount golf clubs at SAMS Club.
Source: Walmart
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 10 March, 2003
Price: $20
Size: 5"
Purity: >99%
Sample Group: Golf Equipment
Titanium Wick holders

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Wick holders.
I wasn't exactly sure what a "wick holder" was, but it was described as something used on large aircraft and made out of titanium: That's good enough for me, and the price was right. I think they hold some kind of wire that dissipates static electricity on the trailing edge of a wing.
Source: eBay seller getnick
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 27 February, 2003
Text Updated: 16 March, 2009
Price: $13/10
Size: 3"
Purity: >90%
Titanium Padlock

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Padlock.
This padlock is sold as a "Titanium Series" rustproof, high security pad lock. It took me about two minutes to drill the rivets out and open it, but I admit that was using a drill press and a special-grade very hard drill bit.

Unfortunately, the term "Titanium" is used in some sort of poetic sense unrelated to the metallurgical composition of the lock. The cladding around the padlock is, according to analysis by x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy at the Center for Microanalysis of Materials, University of Illinois (partially supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under grant DEFG02-91-ER45439), ordinary stainless steel (i.e. mostly iron with nickel and chromium added to inhibit rust). There is no titanium whatsoever in this padlock. On the plus side, the stainless steel is probably stronger than titanium would be, at least at the sorts of temperatures the lock is likely to experience.

Source: Hardware Store
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 26 February, 2003
Price: $12
Size: 3"
Purity: >90%
Titanium Crowbar

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Crowbar.
Why would anyone want a titanium crowbar? In my case because we have a projector screen with a handle that's hard to reach. It's located near the periodic table, and the only logical place to put something to hook the handle with is on my element shelf, but I don't allow anything on my element shelf that isn't an element sample. I didn't see any alternative really.

Why anyone else would want a titanium crowbar is less clear. It is very light, which I suppose might be nice, but then again, often you really want some weight behind your crowbar, when you're jamming it in or under something. I suppose it's nice that it will never rust, but I haven't really had that problem with my half dozen other crowbars.

My big problem with a titanium crowbar is that I'd be afraid to use it for fear of scratching the silky smooth finish. I wonder how they can be made so cheaply, considering how expensive other things made of titanium are. My understanding is that the price of titanium has dropped dramatically over the last few years because of the opening up of supplies from the former Soviet union, and the development of a new, cheaper process for refining it.

The bar is genuine: Analysis by x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy at the Center for Microanalysis of Materials, University of Illinois (partially supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under grant DEFG02-91-ER45439) indicates that it is at least 98% titanium (possibly more, I wasn't being careful with the analysis).

Not only that, after seeing the above, reader Michael Schultz wrote to inform me that there is a good use for titanium crowbars. Read on:
I read through your page covering Titanium. You'd mentioned that you were unsure why anyone would want a titanium crowbar, however there actually is a market for such an item, although the market is a bit obscure. Titanium crowbars are often used by SCUBA divers for wreck diving or salvage. The reason a crowbar would be needed is obvious, and like you said, a titanium crowbar won't rust. However, more important than its resistance to rust, is its density.

Short story:
Divers that need a crowbar underwater would be safer and more comfortable with a titanium crowbar.

Long story:
The weight of a regular crowbar would cause the diver to either be overweight while diving, or require that the diver wear less weight in their weightbelt to maintain proper buoyancy. Part of diving is the eternal struggle for buoyancy. Because of this, divers have to have a measured amount of lead weights attached to them to assist them in staying submerged. These weights assist at first, but eventually become unnecessary due to the increasing amount of water directly above the diver. To balance the weights at lower depths, the diver must use a BC (Buoyancy Compensator), which is a vest that they can inflate or deflate to modify their displacement, and therefore allow them to "hover" in the water. If the diver chooses to be overweight, they would descend more rapidly, and find it necessary to keep their BC inflated significantly more. If the diver accidentally dropped the crowbar, they would ascend and find it necessary to deflate their BC rapidly to keep from ascending too fast. The more underweight the diver, the faster they would ascend.

A regular crowbar would not only serve as more weight attached to the diver, but it's also off center when it's used. This means that a diver who starts using a regular crowbar would most likely become inverted as it moved away from the body, requiring deflation of the BC to compensate, or inflation as you bring it closer to your body. This would make it very difficult to use effectively.

Therefore wreck and salvage divers prefer a lighter, less dense crowbar, with equal or greater strength of a regular crowbar, for the reasons of safety and convenience. Oh yeah, and it doesn't rust!
I stand corrected. And now, double-corrected. Reader Bob Shipp wrote in to add this additional application for a light crowbar:
When rock climbers lay out new routes up cliffs there will often be rocks and handholds (sometimes relatively large, i.e. perhaps a hundred pounds or so) which are not securely attached. These rocks pose a real danger for climbers. If you find yourself hanging from one of these guys and it suddenly shifts or lets go, not only is the climber in danger - a moving rock may damage a rope easily - but especially those on the ground may be hurt. The more vertical the surface is the more danger these rocks may pose, and if you are climbing a roof, i.e. a severely overhanging climb, these rocks may peel off at any time. Just hope that you are not anchored in to it when it goes!

What you need is a very light crowbar; light enough to climb with it clipped onto your harness, and strong enough that you can give a really good crank to any suspicious rocks in order to drop those that are not secure. Of course this is only done during the initial route set up. Once the route has been cleaned, it should be safe for future climbers and spectators, but for the early ascents, a titanium crowbar is so much nicer than a steel one.
Any more applications out there? Why yes, just a few weeks later, reader Jeff Jennings sent in this:

I work for a defense contractor, and last year had a project that involved temporarily installing some equipment on a Navy vessel. For various technical, administrative, and warfighting reasons, we attached the various equipment elements to the overhead and bulkheads with extremely strong neodymium magnets (strong enough to crush the fingers of inattentive persons, and requiring heavy shielding to transport).

A titanium crowbar with a specially ground and polished edge was the tool that at allowed us to have an installation that was virtually permanent, yet could be repositioned or removed at will. When a device needed to be moved, one engineer would use the crowbar to lever the magnet loose from the ship, while another (wearing heavy leather gloves) would grab the equipment and pull against the magnetic force. Without the titanium crowbar, those magnets would be stuck in place forever.

Respectfully submitted,
-Jeff Jennings.
I wonder if their magnets were anything like the supermagnets for sale here. Those three-inchers look pretty scary!

Source: Dutchguard
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 22 February, 2003
Text Updated: 11 August, 2007
Price: $40
Size: 22"
Purity: >98%
Titanium Aircraft bolts

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Aircraft bolts.
You know you're not dealing with everyday bolts when they arrive with an individual protective sleeve on each one, to protect the threads from the other titanium bolts I suppose. Since these bolts are very expensive they are used only where weight is critical, and my guess is that the dimple in the head is there to reduce the weight just a bit more by removing material that doesn't really contribute to the strength. Titanium really is very light, and you would never mistake these for common steel bolts.

The seller claims they retail for about $30 each, and I'm not going to argue with that because it makes them seem more exotic and interesting, and it makes me feel better about having paid about $3 each for a 7/16-20 stove bolt.

Analysis by x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy at the Center for Microanalysis of Materials, University of Illinois (partially supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under grant DEFG02-91-ER45439) confirms that they are high-purity titanium metal.

Source: eBay seller getnick
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 22 February, 2003
Text Updated: 16 March, 2009
Price: $14.50/5
Size: 2.5"
Purity: >90%
The Elements book Mad Science book Periodic Table Poster  Click here to buy a book, photographic periodic table poster, card deck, or 3D print based on the images you see here!
Titanium Sample from the Everest Set

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Sample from the Everest Set.
Up until the early 1990's a company in Russia sold a periodic table collection with element samples. At some point their American distributor sold off the remaining stock to a man who is now selling them on eBay. The samples (except gases) weigh about 0.25 grams each, and the whole set comes in a very nice wooden box with a printed periodic table in the lid.

To learn more about the set you can visit my page about element collecting for a general description and information about how to buy one, or you can see photographs of all the samples from the set displayed on my website in a periodic table layout or with bigger pictures in numerical order.

Source: Rob Accurso
Contributor: Rob Accurso
Acquired: 7 February, 2003
Text Updated: 29 January, 2009
Price: Donated
Size: 0.2"
Purity: >99%
Titanium Sample from the RGB Set

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Sample from the RGB Set.
The Red Green and Blue company in England sells a very nice element collection in several versions. Max Whitby, the director of the company, very kindly donated a complete set to the periodic table table.

To learn more about the set you can visit my page about element collecting for a general description or the company's website which includes many photographs and pricing details. I have two photographs of each sample from the set: One taken by me and one from the company. You can see photographs of all the samples displayed in a periodic table format: my pictures or their pictures. Or you can see both side-by-side with bigger pictures in numerical order.

The picture on the left was taken by me. Here is the company's version (there is some variation between sets, so the pictures sometimes show different variations of the samples):


Source: Max Whitby of RGB
Contributor: Max Whitby of RGB
Acquired: 25 January, 2003
Text Updated: 11 August, 2007
Price: Donated
Size: 0.2"
Purity: 99.7%
Titanium So-called TITANIUM watch

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So-called TITANIUM watch.
After the experience with Chris' "TITANIUM" racquetball racket. which turned out to contain not even the slightest trace of titanium, I'm suspicious of any inexpensive object claiming to be made of titanium. At $7 (after Christmas clearance), this watch was definitely inexpensive. But it did say titanium prominently on the box, and for the time being I'll give it the benefit of the doubt. After I test it and know for sure whether there is any titanium involved, I'll publish the details.
Source: Hardware Store
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 3 January, 2003
Price: $7
Size: 2"
Purity: 90%
Titanium Strange lump

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Strange lump.
Ed Pegg found this strange-looking lump of metal/crystal in some sand when he was 6 years old, and has managed to keep it for 33 years through about 20 moves. He never knew what it was until I took it in for analysis by x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy at the Center for Microanalysis of Materials, University of Illinois (partially supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under grant DEFG02-91-ER45439).

You'll never guess what it is: I was certainly quite surprised to find out and so was Ed. It is a mixture of 62% iron and 38% titanium (!). Since he found it near an air force base in Florida, it's almost certainly some kind of alien space metal that fell off a truck transporting a crashed flying saucer to the secret lab at the air force base.

Either that or Ed should go back to where he found it and become fabulously wealthy after staking a titanium mining claim.

Source: Ed Pegg Jr
Contributor: Ed Pegg Jr
Acquired: 18 December, 2002
Price: Donated
Size: 1"
Purity: 38%
Titanium Gibraltar Millennium Coin

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Gibraltar Millennium Coin.
I have a feeling this is one of those coins that isn't actually meant to be spent. Its face value is 5 Gibraltar Pounds, whatever that's worth. I paid $35 for it. It's one of only a very small number of coins that's ever been minted out of titanium, probably because the stuff is pretty hard to work with, and most people wouldn't appreciate the advantages of coinage you could build a jet engine out of.
Dan Lewis, the source of this coin, sent the following story about it:
The titanium coins were minted for Gibraltar by the Pobjoy Mint in the UK. Only 2001 of them were produced, and I think they have kind of given up on making more titanium coins because the hardness of the metal makes it very difficult to work with, not to mention how quickly it destroys the dies. They did issue one other Five Pound coin in the year 2000, this one to commemorate the famous "Tuppenny Blue" postage stamp, which is currently valued at $800,000. I think they were already committed to minting the second coin before they figured out what a pain it would be to produce coins from titanium.
The contrast in weight between this coin and my similarly-sized niobium coin is dramatic.
Analysis by x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy at the Center for Microanalysis of Materials, University of Illinois (partially supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under grant DEFG02-91-ER45439) indicates that the coin is essentially pure titanium.
Source: Dan Lewis
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 14 June, 2002
Price: $35
Size: 1.5"
Purity: >99%
Sample Group: Coins
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Titanium Hip joint socket

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Hip joint socket.
This is the other half of an artificial hip joint you can see under cobalt, the socket into which the ball from that part fits into. The outer surface is a wonderful matrix of sintered titanium balls (very small), for the hip bone to grow into, firmly attaching the socket to the bone.
Source: Paul Wellin
Contributor: Paul Wellin
Acquired: 14 June, 2002
Text Updated: 16 March, 2009
Price: Donated
Size: 2.25"
Purity: >90%
Sample Group: Body Parts+Medical
Titanium Intramedullary nails

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Intramedullary nails.
Paul Wellin's brother is an orthopedic surgeon. I know this because I was talking to Paul about how I hoped some day to meet an orthopedic surgeon who would have some left over body parts made out of titanium or tantalum that he could donate to my periodic table, upon which Paul said....
These bone pins were defective in some way, though they look rather pretty to me. They are over twelve inches long. Think about someone cutting open your body, drilling out the marrow of your bones and the ramming one of these things the whole length through, so they can screw some fittings on either end. Ouch. But at least you'll have some very attractive titanium in you from then on.
Paul Wellin's Brother sent the following information about these samples:
"Titanium has become a preferred material for Orthopedic implants over the past 10-15 years because of a number of its inherent properties. It is inert in the body, and has sufficient strength to support the mechanical loads (assuming proper design and size of the implant). It is also very resistant to fatigue failure - that is, it can undergo many (millions) of cycles of mechanical loading without failure - a property that is extremely important in an Orthopedic implant that will be subjected to a million cycles of loading a year. Most Orthopedic titanium implants are actually an alloy of titanium with small amounts of aluminum and vanadium, as pure titanium implants are somewhat brittle and have a higher rate of fracture. Titanium alloy is less brittle, and holds up quite well."
"As to why the implants you have are not in someone's body, they are not defective; they were actually in the operating room and taken out of their sterile packaging in anticipation of being implanted, but were for one reason or another not used. In some cases, the devices were implanted, but found to be too long or too short, and were then replaced with a correct sized implant. We are not allowed to re-use devices that have been implanted and removed, as there is no feasible way to ensure that the stresses of implantation have not altered the mechanical properties of the device. So they become very expensive junk. (Any implant that was removed from a patient was thoroughly cleaned and then sterilized before it left the OR). Other devices may have been removed from their packaging, but not implanted because the surgeon changed his/her mind about the size or decided to use a slightly different implant before actually putting in the patient. Depending on the implant, re-sterilization in the hospital may not be practicable - more expensive junk."
"These intramedullary rods or nails are placed inside the intramedullary canal (marrow cavity) of long bones like the femur or tibia to stabilize fractures of these bones until they heal."
Two and a half years later, Mike Lauter did this description one better by sending actual photographs of a bone pin very much like mine being pounded into his own actual leg:
Leg1.JPGLeg2.JPGLeg3.JPG
Ouch. That's all I can say, ouch.
Source: Paul Wellin
Contributor: Paul Wellin
Acquired: 14 June, 2002
Text Updated: 16 March, 2009
Price: Donated
Size: 12"
Purity: >90%
Sample Group: Medical
Titanium Electrochemically grown crystals

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Electrochemically grown crystals.
These crystals were reported to have been grown in a factory some time ago. I don't know much more about them, but they are beautiful, shiny, and titanium-like. A few are about an inch long, the rest crumbled.
I purchased a small quantity in 2002, and then three pounds in 2003, one pound for me and two for the museum displays I have been working on with The Red Green and Blue company. As of mid-2003 the seller reports having about 20 pounds left: When that is gone, there may be no more of these available.
Source: eBay seller snooj
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 11 June, 2002
Price: $13
Size: 1"
Purity: >99%
Titanium Machined part, 99.999%

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Machined part, 99.999%.
This lovely if perplexing shape of "five nines" titanium was kindly donated by Ivan Petrov, of the Materials Research Laboratory at the University of Illinois. I had gone there to have my artificial knee joint sample tested to see what it was. It turned out to be Aluminum instead of the hoped for titanium. I guess he took pity on me by donating a couple of nice pure metals.
Source: Ivan Petrov
Contributor: Ivan Petrov
Acquired: 6 June, 2002
Price: Donated
Size: 3"
Purity: 99.999%
Titanium Cylinder, Sponge, and Mossy, 99.98%

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Cylinder, Sponge, and Mossy, 99.98%.
Kindly donated by David Franco, who sent many elements after seeing the slashdot discussion.
Source: David Franco
Contributor: David Franco
Acquired: 17 May, 2002
Price: Donated
Size: 0.1"
Purity: 99.98%
The Elements book Mad Science book Periodic Table Poster  Click here to buy a book, photographic periodic table poster, card deck, or 3D print based on the images you see here!
Titanium Titanite

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Titanite.
Sample of Titanite.
Source: Jensan Scientifics
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 2 April, 2009
Text Updated: 3 April, 2009
Price: Anonymous
Size: 1"
Composition: CaTi[O+SiO4]
Titanium Euxenite

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Euxenite.
Sample of Euxenite.
Source: eBay seller sellingoffoddstuff
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 2 April, 2009
Text Updated: 3 April, 2009
Price: $6.50
Size: 1.5"
Composition: (Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6
Titanium Ilmenite.

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Ilmenite.
Sample of Ilmenite.
Source: Jensan Scientifics
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 28 March, 2009
Text Updated: 29 March, 2009
Price: Anonymous
Size: 0.125"
Composition: FeTiO3
Titanium Strontium Titanate fake diamond

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Strontium Titanate fake diamond.
Before the widespread use of cubic zirconia as fake diamond, strontium titanate was more popular. It is, however, much softer than diamond, and much more expensive that cubic zirconia.
I like it because it's a pretty use of strontium.
Source: Theodore Gray
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 11 March, 2009
Text Updated: 12 March, 2009
Price: $20
Size: 0.25"
Composition: SrTiO3
Titanium Betafite

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Betafite.
A rare uranium mineral.
Source: merlyn8804
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 11 March, 2009
Text Updated: 12 March, 2009
Price: $20
Size: 1"
Composition: (Ca,U)2(Ti,Nb)2O6(OH)
The Elements book Mad Science book Periodic Table Poster  Click here to buy a book, photographic periodic table poster, card deck, or 3D print based on the images you see here!
Titanium Titanium dioxide powder

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Titanium dioxide powder.
Titanium dioxide is the white in white paint and the opaque in most other paints. Chances are if you look up from your screen, you'll be looking at a wall covered in titanium dioxide. It is cheap and common, unlike titanium metal, which is expensive and not seen nearly as often. This is because turning titanium dioxide (which is one of the main ores of titanium) into its metal form is difficult and expensive, as is working the metal once you have refined it.
Source: eBay seller arkie-annie
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 28 February, 2009
Text Updated: 1 March, 2009
Price: $40
Size: 2"
Composition: TiO2
Titanium Brookite

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Brookite.
Description from the source:
Brookite (Ti O2 orth.), Magnet Cove, Arkansas, USA. Perfect, geminated black crystals. 1,5x1,2x1 cm; 10 g with box.
Source: Simone Citon
Contributor: John Gray
Acquired: 28 January, 2009
Text Updated: 29 January, 2009
Price: Trade
Size: 0.6"
Composition: TiO2
Titanium Euxenite from Jensan Set

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Euxenite from Jensan Set.
This sample represents lutetium in the "The Grand Tour of the Periodic Table" mineral collection from Jensan Scientifics. Visit my page about element collecting for a general description, or see photographs of all the samples from the set in a periodic table layout or with bigger pictures in numerical order.
Source: Jensan Scientifics
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 10 January, 2009
Text Updated: 10 January, 2009
Price: Anonymous
Size: 0.6"
Composition: (Y,Ca,Ce,Lu,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6
Titanium Rutile

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Rutile.
Description from the source:
Rutile ( Ti O2 tet. ), Novo Horizonte, Bahia, Brazil. Golden, totally included in Quartz partially polished. 3x2,5x2,5 cm; 20 g.
Source: Simone Citon
Contributor: John Gray
Acquired: 19 November, 2008
Text Updated: 20 November, 2008
Price: Trade
Size: 1.2"
Composition: TiO2
Titanium Photo Card Deck of the Elements

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Photo Card Deck of the Elements.
In late 2006 I published a photo periodic table and it's been selling well enough to encourage me to make new products. This one is a particularly neat one: A complete card deck of the elements with one big five-inch (12.7cm) square card for every element. If you like this site and all the pictures on it, you'll love this card deck. And of course if you're wondering what pays for all the pictures and the internet bandwidth to let you look at them, the answer is people buying my posters and cards decks. Hint hint.
Source: Theodore Gray
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 19 November, 2008
Text Updated: 21 November, 2008
Price: $35
Size: 5"
Composition: HHeLiBeBCNOFNeNaMg AlSiPSClArKCaScTiVCrMn FeCoNiCuZnGaGeAsSeBrKr RbSrYZrNbMoTcRuRhPdAg CdInSnSbTeIXeCsBaLaCePr NdPmSmEuGdTbDyHoErTm YbLuHfTaWReOsIrPtAuHgTl PbBiPoAtRnFrRaAcThPaUNp PuAmCmBkCfEsFmMdNoLrRf DbSgBhHsMtDsRgUubUutUuq UupUuhUusUuo
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Titanium Rutile

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Rutile.
Description from the source:
Rutile ( Ti O2 tet. ), Ibitiara, Bahia, Brazil. Yellow epitaxial elongated crystals on Hematite. 2,2x1,4x0,8 cm; 8 g with box.
Source: Simone Citon
Contributor: John Gray
Acquired: 30 September, 2008
Text Updated: 1 October, 2008
Price: Trade
Size: 1"
Composition: TiO2
Titanium Euxenite

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Euxenite.
Description from the source:
Euxenite ( (Y Ca Ce U Th) (Nb Ta Ti)2 O6 orth.), Trout Creek Pass, Chafee Co. Colorado, USA. Crystal cluster, nice and rare example. 2x1,5x1 cm; 14 g with box.
Source: Simone Citon
Contributor: John Gray
Acquired: 30 September, 2008
Text Updated: 1 October, 2008
Price: Trade
Size: 0.75"
Composition: (YCaCeUTh)(NbTaTi)2O6
Titanium Zirconolite

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Zirconolite.
Description from the source:
Zirconolite var. Polymignite ((Ca Fe Y Th) (Nb Ti Ta Zr) O4 orth.), Stavern (Fredriksva"rn), Larvik, Vestfold, Norway. Black, fractured on matrix. 2,5x1,4x1,2 cm; 3 g.
Source: Simone Citon
Contributor: John Gray
Acquired: 30 September, 2008
Text Updated: 1 October, 2008
Price: Trade
Size: 1"
Composition: (CaFeYTh)(NbTiTaZr)O4
Titanium More confiscated Davidite

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More confiscated Davidite.
This mildly radioactive Davidite ore was confiscated from a student who brought it to school, not realizing that schools tend to freak out about radioactive things, whether they are truly dangerous or not. The original source is United Nuclear and it's perfectly legal.
Source: Anonymous
Contributor: Anonymous
Acquired: 8 May, 2007
Text Updated: 9 May, 2007
Price: Donated
Size: 1"
Composition: (La,Ce,Ca)(Y,U)(Ti,Fe)20O38
Titanium Confiscated Davidite

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Confiscated Davidite.
This mildly radioactive Davidite ore was confiscated from a student who brought it to school, not realizing that schools tend to freak out about radioactive things, whether they are truly dangerous or not. The original source is United Nuclear and it's perfectly legal.
Source: Anonymous
Contributor: Anonymous
Acquired: 8 May, 2007
Text Updated: 9 May, 2007
Price: Donated
Size: 1"
Composition: (La,Ce,Ca)(Y,U)(Ti,Fe)20O38
The Elements book Mad Science book Periodic Table Poster  Click here to buy a book, photographic periodic table poster, card deck, or 3D print based on the images you see here!
Titanium Euxenite

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Euxenite.
This sample is from Beronono, Betapho, Madagascar. I bought it for its thorium content.
Source: eBay seller minwreck
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 20 September, 2005
Price: $20
Size: 0.75"
Composition: (Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6
Titanium Aeschynite

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Aeschynite.
The card that came with this shale-like blackish mineral says the following about the name: "From Gk. aeschyne, shame, alluding to the inability of chemists at the time of its discovery to separate some of its constituents". Hm, I wonder if it was the chemists who came up with this name, or the geologists who gave it to them to analyze.
This specimen is from Molland in Iveland, Norway. I bought it for its thorium content: Not that many minerals contain thorium and I'm trying to collect them all.

Reader Magnus Alvestad sent this interesting information about Iveland:
Hi. I noticed that your Aeschynite sample is from Iveland in Norway. The small community of Iveland is actually famous for their mines and minerals. Here's a folder with some information about a local exhibition. They also have at least 5 mines that are open to the public for a small price, where you can dig for minerals yourself.

Source: SoCal (Nevada), Inc
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 20 September, 2005
Text Updated: 1 December, 2008
Price: $29
Size: 1.5"
Composition: (Y, Ca, Fe, Th)(Ti, Nb)2(O, OH)6
Titanium Brookite

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Brookite.
I actually bought this crystal by mistake: I was going through mindat.org looking up the name of every single mineral that contains thorium, then searching on eBay to see if I could buy one of them. (I needed more pictures of thorium crystals to use for the short-lived radioactive elements that appear in the thorium decay chain.) For some reason I got confused and bough this one too: It's titanium dioxide with no hint of anything radioactive. But it's pretty just the same!
This is officially described as Brookite and smoky quartz from Magnet Cove.
Source: eBay seller crystaldigger
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 20 September, 2005
Price: $29
Size: 2.2"
Composition: TiO2
Titanium Sapphire boule

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Sapphire boule.
This is a "flame fusion" sapphire crystal boule, such as might be used to create synthetic cut gemstones. Flame fusion means a fine powder of aluminum oxide (the base material sapphires are made of) is blown through an extremely hot flame and onto a seed crystal. The molten droplets, somewhat amazingly, follow the pattern of the seed crystal and slowly accumulate into a large, single crystal of sapphire.
The slight pink cast in this boule comes from a 1% impurity of titanium. Impurities determine the colors of most gemstones, and are, for example, responsible for the difference between rubies and sapphires, both of which are made of aluminum oxide.
Source: SoCal (Nevada), Inc
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 28 April, 2004
Price: $65
Size: 4"
Composition: Al2O3+Ti
Titanium Ferrotitanium lumps

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Ferrotitanium lumps.
Like ferrochrome, ferrotitanium is a master alloy used in creating iron/titanium alloys that contain a much smaller percentage of titanium. It's just easier and cheaper to ship the titanium in the form of already mixed alloys, rather than in pure form. For one thing, it's rather hard to melt pure titanium to get it to go into the alloy you're trying to make.
Source: John Wechselberger
Contributor: Theodore Gray
Acquired: 21 August, 2003
Price: $5
Size: 1.25"
Composition: FeTi
The Elements book Mad Science book Periodic Table Poster  Click here to buy a book, photographic periodic table poster, card deck, or 3D print based on the images you see here!
Titanium Rutile Quartz from Jensan Set

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Rutile Quartz from Jensan Set.
This sample represents titanium (in the needles) in the "The Grand Tour of the Periodic Table" mineral collection from Jensan Scientifics. Visit my page about element collecting for a general description, or see photographs of all the samples from the set in a periodic table layout or with bigger pictures in numerical order.
Source: Jensan Scientifics
Contributor: Jensan Scientifics
Acquired: 17 March, 2003
Price: Donated
Size: 1"
Composition: TiO2+SiO2
Titanium Rutile Quartz from Jensan Set

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Rutile Quartz from Jensan Set.
This sample represents titanium (in the needles) in the "The Grand Tour of the Periodic Table" mineral collection from Jensan Scientifics. Visit my page about element collecting for a general description, or see photographs of all the samples from the set in a periodic table layout or with bigger pictures in numerical order.
Source: Jensan Scientifics
Contributor: Jensan Scientifics
Acquired: 17 March, 2003
Price: Donated
Size: 1"
Composition: TiO2+SiO2
Titanium Davidite from Jensan Set

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Davidite from Jensan Set.
This sample represents scandium in the "The Grand Tour of the Periodic Table" mineral collection from Jensan Scientifics. Visit my page about element collecting for a general description, or see photographs of all the samples from the set in a periodic table layout or with bigger pictures in numerical order.
Source: Jensan Scientifics
Contributor: Jensan Scientifics
Acquired: 17 March, 2003
Price: Donated
Size: 1"
Composition: Sc(Ti,Fe)21(O,OH)38
Titanium Titanium dental implant 3

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Titanium dental implant 3. (External Sample)
This dental implant was kindly loaned to me by Jake Scott, who researches the properties of these kinds of implants.
Location: Jake Scott
Photographed: 26 September, 2008
Text Updated: 28 September, 2008
Size: 0.3"
Purity: 99%
Titanium Titanium dental implant 2

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Titanium dental implant 2. (External Sample)
This dental implant was kindly loaned to me by Jake Scott, who researches the properties of these kinds of implants.
Location: Jake Scott
Photographed: 26 September, 2008
Text Updated: 28 September, 2008
Size: 0.3"
Purity: 99%
Titanium Titanium dental implant 1

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Titanium dental implant 1. (External Sample)
This dental implant was kindly loaned to me by Jake Scott, who researches the properties of these kinds of implants.
Location: Jake Scott
Photographed: 26 September, 2008
Text Updated: 28 September, 2008
Size: 0.3"
Purity: 99%
Titanium Wedding ring

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Wedding ring. (External Sample)
Titanium rings are becoming more widely known: One advantage is that they do not cause allergic reactions in people who are sensitive to other metals. This one is the wedding ring of Jeff Bryant and Waylena McCully: Jeff allowed me to photograph it as I really didn't want to have to buy an expensive ring just to get an example of titanium used in jewelry.
Location: Jeff's Finger
Photographed: 15 July, 2003
Size: 0.8"
Purity: 99%
The Elements book Mad Science book Periodic Table Poster  Click here to buy a book, photographic periodic table poster, card deck, or 3D print based on the images you see here!